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Title: Evolutionary history and global spread of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing lineage
Authors: Merker, Matthias
Blin, Camille
Mona, Stefano
Duforet-Frebourg, Nicolas
Lecher, Sophie
Willery, Eve
Blum, Michael G B
Rüsch-Gerdes, Sabine
Aleksic, Eman
Allix-Béguec, Caroline
Antierens, Annick
Augustynowicz-Kopeć, Ewa
Ballif, Marie
Barletta, Francesca
Beck, Hans Peter
Barry, Clifton E
Bonnet, Maryline
Borroni, Emanuele
Campos-Herrero, Isolina
Cirillo, Daniela
Cox, Helen
Crowe, Suzanne
Crudu, Valeriu
Diel, Roland
Drobniewski, Francis
Fauville-Dufaux, Maryse
Gagneux, Sébastien
Ghebremichael, Solomon
Hanekom, Madeleine
Hoffner, Sven
Jiao, Wei-wei
Kalon, Stobdan
Kohl, Thomas A
Kontsevaya, Irina
Lillebæk, Troels
Maeda, Shinji
Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav
Rasmussen, Michael
Rastogi, Nalin
Samper, Sofia
Sanchez-Padilla, Elisabeth
Savic, Branislava
Shamputa, Isdore Chola
Shen, Adong
Sng, Li-Hwei
Stakenas, Petras
Toit, Kadri
Varaine, Francis
Vukovic, Dragana
Wahl, Céline
Warren, Robin
Supply, Philip
Niemann, Stefan
Wirth, Thierry
Mokrousov, Igor V. 
Issue Date: Mar-2015
Publisher: Nature Research
Journal: Nature Genetics 
Abstract: Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of the Beijing lineage are globally distributed and are associated with the massive spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis in Eurasia. Here we reconstructed the biogeographical structure and evolutionary history of this lineage by genetic analysis of 4,987 isolates from 99 countries and whole-genome sequencing of 110 representative isolates. We show that this lineage initially originated in the Far East, from where it radiated worldwide in several waves. We detected successive increases in population size for this pathogen over the last 200 years, practically coinciding with the Industrial Revolution, the First World War and HIV epidemics. Two MDR clones of this lineage started to spread throughout central Asia and Russia concomitantly with the collapse of the public health system in the former Soviet Union. Mutations identified in genes putatively under positive selection and associated with virulence might have favored the expansion of the most successful branches of the lineage.
ISSN: 1061-4036
DOI: 10.1038/ng.3195
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